Publications

Latest Research

Towards a Reformulated Theory Underlying Schema Therapy: Position Paper of an International Workgroup describes the thinking of an international research group focused on designing a new schema mode inventory. During this process, short comings were identified with the current classification system of schemas and modes. We decided to revisit the model and in doing so have proposed new ways of thinking about core needs and discovered 3 new schemas. The article has just been published in Cognitive Research and Therapy.

Patient and Therapist Perspectives on Treatment for Adults with PTSD from Childhood Trauma is a publication arising from the IREM project that looked at treating adults with PTSD from childhood experiences. Last year we published the results of the quantitative analysis which showed that both EMDR and Imagery Rescripting were successful without stabilisation and the treatment effects were stable over time (81% no longer had PTSD at one year follow-up). This new paper describes the qualitative findings on what therapists and patients thought and felt during the treatment. It provides some guidance for us on understanding how to use such therapies for this patient group. It has just been published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine.


Webinar recording – Schemas, schema domains, and needs

In this webinar Assoc Prof Chris Lee and Dr George Lockwood discuss the current empirical status of Schema Domains and the new perspective this offers on core emotional needs and certain schemas (primarily Emotional Inhibition and Subjugation and, secondarily, Abandonment, Insufficient Self-control and Punitiveness). Limitations of the current long and short forms of the YSQ are discussed and suggestions made for improvements and the best versions to use for research and practice.  Links between attachment theory, domains and schemas are also presented. Several questions from the audience lead to promising new directions.


Research Publications

Assoc Prof C Lee

Below is a list of selected publications authored by Christopher Lee. His research publications are widely cited.  For example the 2002 EMDR outcome study  and the 1999 paper on Schema Therapy have each been cited over 400 times.

Assmann, N., Fassbinder, E., Schaich, A., Lee, C. W., Haan, K. B. d., Rijkeboer, M., & Arntz, A. (2021). Differential Effects of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders on Treatment Outcome in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Trauma. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(16). doi:10.3390/jcm10163708

Rameckers, S. A., van Emmerik, A. A. P., Bachrach, N., Lee, C. W., Morina, N., & Arntz, A. (2021). The impact of childhood maltreatment on the severity of childhood-related posttraumatic stress disorder in adults. Child Abuse Negl, 120, 105208. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105208

Dominguez, S. K., Matthijssen, S., & Lee, C. W. (2021). Trauma-focused treatments for depression. A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 16(7), e0254778. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0254778

Arntz, A., Rijkeboer, M., Chan, E., Fassbinder, E., Karaosmanoglu, A., Lee, C. W., & Panzeri, M. (2021). Towards a Reformulated Theory Underlying Schema Therapy: Position Paper of an International Workgroup. Cognitive Therapy and Research. doi:10.1007/s10608-021-10209-5

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Lee, C. W., Correia, H., Menninga, S., Fassbinder, E., Köehne, S., & Arntz, A. (2021). Patient and Therapist Perspectives on Treatment for Adults with PTSD from Childhood Trauma. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 10(5). doi:10.3390/jcm10050954

Olff, M., Monson, C. M., Riggs, D., Lee, C. W., Ehlers, A., Forbes, D. (2020). Psychological Treatments: Core and Common Elements of Effectiveness. In Forbes, D., Bisson, J.I., Monson, C.M., and Berliner, L. (Editors). Effective Treatments for PTSD Third Edition Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies ISBN 9781462543564

Shapiro, F., Russell, M. C., Lee, C. W., Schubert, S. J. (2020). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy. In Forbes, D., Bisson, J.I., Monson, C.M., and Berliner, L. (Editors). Effective Treatments for PTSD Third Edition. Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies ISBN 9781462543564

Dominguez, S., Drummond, P., Gouldthorp, B., Janson, D., & Lee, C. W. (2020). A randomized controlled trial examining the impact of individual trauma‐focused therapy for individuals receiving group treatment for depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. doi:10.1111/papt.12268

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Lee, C. W., Fassbinder, E., van Es, S. M., Menninga, S., Meewisse, M. L., . . . Arntz, A. (2020). Imagery rescripting and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing as treatment for adults with post-traumatic stress disorder from childhood trauma: randomised clinical trial. Br J Psychiatry, 1-7. doi:10.1192/bjp.2020.158

Lee, C. W., & Boterhoven de Haan, K. (2020). Working with trauma memories and complex post traumatic stress disorder. In G. Heath & H. Startup (Eds.), Creative Methods in Schema Therapy: Advances and Innovation in Clinical Practice: Routledge.

McGuire Stanbury, T. M., Drummond, P. D., Laugharne, J., Kullack, C., & Lee, C. W. (2020). Comparative Efficiency of EMDR and Prolonged Exposure in Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(1), 2-12. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.14.1.2

Yalcin, O., Lee, C., & Correia, H. (2020). Factor Structure of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Long Form‐3). Australian Psychologist, 1-13. doi:10.1111/ap.12458

de Jongh, A., Amann, B. L., Hofmann, A., Farrell, D., & Lee, C. W. (2019). The status of EMDR therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder 30 years after its introduction. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 261-269.

de Jongh, A., Bicanic, I., Matthijssen, S., Amann, B. L., Hofmann, A., Farrell, D., . . . Maxfield, L. (2019). The current status of EMDR therapy involving the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 284-290.

Dominguez, S., & Lee, C. W. (2019). Differences in International Guidelines Regarding EMDR for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Why They Diverge and Suggestions for Future Research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 247-260. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.247

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Fassbinder, E., Hayes, C., & Lee, C. W. (2019). A schema therapy approach to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 29(1), 54-64. doi:10.1037/int0000120

Cooper, R. Z., Smith, A. D., Lewis, D., Lee, C. W., & Leeds, A. M. (2019). Developing the Interrater Reliability of the Modified EMDR Fidelity Checklist. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 32-50. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.32

Lee, C. W., de Jongh, A., & Hase, M. (2019). Lateral Eye Movements, EMDR, and Memory Changes: A Critical Commentary on Houben et al. (2018) Clinical Psychological Science. doi:10.1177/2167702619830395

Lee, C. W., & Walton, C. J. (2019). Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with evidence-based psychological treatments In R. Benjamin, J. Haliburn, & S. King (Eds.), Humanising Mental Health Care in Australia: A Guide to Trauma-informed Approaches. (pp. 223-235): Routledge.

Lee, C. W., & Frost, A. D. (2019). Where Australia’s Better Access scheme has had an impact on mental health: A commentary on Jorm (2018). Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 000486741982849. doi:10.1177/0004867419828495 click here for full article

Tan, Y. M., Lee, C. W., Averbeck, L. E., Brand-de Wilde, O., Farrell, J., Fassbinder, E., . . . Arntz, A. (2018). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: A qualitative study of patients’ perceptions. PLoS ONE, 13(11), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0206039

Van Woudenberg, C., Voorendonk, E.M., Bongaerts, H., Zoet, H.A., Verhagen, M., Van Minnen, A., Lee, C.W., & De Jongh, A. (2018). The effectiveness of an intensive treatment program combining prolonged exposure and EMDR for severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 9(1), https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2018.1487225

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Lee, C. W., Fassbinder, E., (In press) A Schema Therapy approach to the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration

Lee, C. W., Ree, M. J., & Wong, M. Y. (2018). Effective Insomnia Treatments: Investigation of Processes in Mindfulness and Cognitive Therapy. Behaviour Change, 1-20. doi:10.1017/bec.2018.10

Bastick, E., Bot, S., Verhagen, S. J. W., Zarbock, G., Farrell, J., Brand-de Wilde, O., . . . Lee, C. W. (2018). The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Group Schema Therapy Rating Scale – Revised. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1-18. doi:10.1017/S1352465817000741

Moir, V. K., Lee, C. W., & Marais, I. (2017). The Effects of Item Placement in the Young Schema Questionnaire Journal of Applied Measurement, 18(4), 370-382. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29252206

Cotter, P., Meysner, L., & Lee, C. W. (2017). Participant experiences of Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing vs. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for grief: similarities and differences. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(1), 1375838. doi:10.1080/20008198.2017.1375838

Dominguez, S. K., & Lee, C. W. (2017). Errors in the 2017 APA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of PTSD: What the Data Actually Says. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(1425). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01425

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Lee, C. W., Fassbinder, E., Voncken, M. J., Meewisse, M., Van Es, S. M., . . . Arntz, A. (2017). Imagery rescripting and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing for treatment of adults with childhood trauma-related post-traumatic stress disorder: IREM study design. BMC psychiatry, 17(1), 165. doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1330-2

Laugharne, J., Kullack, C., Lee, C. W., McGuire, T., Brockman, S., Drummond, P. D., & Starkstein, S. (2016). Amygdala volumetric change following psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 28 (4), 312-318. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16010006

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2016). Eye Movements Matter, But Why? Psychophysiological Correlates of EMDR Therapy to Treat Trauma in Timor-Leste. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(2), 70-81. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.10.2.70

Schubert, S., Lee, C. W., de Araujo, G., Butler, S., Taylor, G., Drummond, P. D. (2016) The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to treat symptoms following trauma in Timor Leste. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Apr;29(2):141-8. doi: 10.1002/jts.22084.

Jongh, A., Resick, P. A., Zoellner, L. A., Minnen, A., Lee, C. W., Monson, C. M., . . . Feeny, N. (2016). Critical Analysis of the Current Treatment Guidelines for Complex PTSD in Adults. Depression and anxiety. DOI: 10.1002/da.22469.

Meysner, L., Cotter, P., & Lee, C. W. (2016). Evaluating the Efficacy of EMDR With Grieving Individuals: A Randomized Control Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(1), 1-11. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.10.1.2.

Wong, M.Y., Lee, C.W., & Ree, M (2015). Enhancing CBT for chronic insomnia: A randomised control trial of additive components of Mindfulness or Cognitive Therapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy DOI: 10.1002/cpp.1980

Bach, B., Lee, C., Mortensen, E. L., & Simonsen, E. (2015). How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs? Journal of Personality Disorders, 29, 212. doi:10.1521/pedi_2015_29_212

Gilomen, S. A., & Lee, C. W. (2015). The efficacy of acupoint stimulation in the treatment of psychological distress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 48(0), 140-148. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.03.012

Wetzelaer, P., Farrell, J. Evers, S., Jacob, G., Lee, C.W., et al. (2014) Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 14:319. doi:10.1186/s12888-014-0319-3
Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2014). What does the data say about the importance of eye movement in EMDR? Journal of Behavioural Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 45, 226-228.

Boterhoven De Haan, Katrina L, & Lee, Christopher W. (2014). Therapists’ thoughts on therapy: Clinicians’ perceptions of the therapy processes that distinguish schema, cognitive behavioural and psychodynamic approaches. Psychotherapy Research, 25(5), 538-549.

Geddes, K., Dziurawiec, S., & Lee, C.W. (2013). Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for the Treatment of Emotion Dysregulation and Trauma Symptoms in Self-Injurious and Suicidal Adolescent Females: A Pilot Programme within a Community-Based Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. Psychiatry Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/145219

Lee, C.W., & Arntz, A. (2013). A Commentary on the Study on Dual-Focused vs. Single-Focused Therapy for Personality Disorders and Substance Dependence by Ball et al.(2011): What Can We Really Conclude? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(8), 712-713.

Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2013). A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories. Journal of Behavioural Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 44, 231-239.

Ho, M., & Lee, C.W. (2012). Cognitive behaviour therapy versus eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for post-traumatic disorder – is it all in the homework then? Revue Europeene de Psychologie Appliquee, 62(4), 253-260.

Roelofs, J., Lee, C., Ruijten, T., & Lobbestael, J. (2011). The mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the relation between quality of attachment relationships and symptoms of depression in adolescents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 39(4), 471-479.

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2011). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(1), 1-11.

Cockram, D. M., Drummond, P. D., & Lee, C. W. (2010). Role and treatment of early maladaptive schemas in Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(3), 165-182.

Lee, C. W. (2008). Crucial Processes in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 262-268.

Lee, C. W., & Drummond P, D. (2008). Effects of Eye Movement vs Therapists Instructions on the Process of Distressing Memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(5), 801-808.

Lee, C. W., Taylor, G., & Drummond, P. (2006). The active ingredient in EMDR; is it traditional exposure or dual focus of attention? Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13, 97-107.

Lee, C., Gavriel, H., Drummond, P., Richards, J., & Greenwald, R. (2002). Treatment of PTSD: Stress Inoculation Training with Prolonged Exposure compared to EMDR. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1071-1089.

Lee, C. W., Taylor, G., & Dunn, J. (1999). Factor structure of the Schema Questionnaire in a large clinical Factor structure of the Schema Questionnaire in a large clinical sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23(4), 441-451.

Dr Sarah Schubert 

Shapiro, F., Russell, M., Lee, C., and Schubert, S. (2020). EMDR Therapy. In ISTSS, International Society of Traumatic Stress Studies. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention and Treatment Guidelines. Summary Available at: http://www.istss.org/treating-trauma/new-istss-prevention-and-treatment-guidelines.aspx

Matthijssen, S. …, Schubert, S., et al. (2020) The current status of EMDR therapy, specific target areas, and goals for the future. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(4), p. 241-256.

Contributing author to Shapiro, F. (2018). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy: Basic principles, protocol, and procedures. (3rd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press. (Sarah Schubert, eye movement theory).

Schubert, S.J., Lee, C.W., de Araujo, A., Butler, S., Taylor, G., & Drummond, P.D. (2016). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to treat symptoms following trauma in Timor Leste. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 29, pp 141-8. doi: 10.1002/jts.22084

Schubert, S.J., Lee, C., & Drummond, P. (2016). Eye movements matter, but why? Confirmatory psychophysiological correlates of EMDR to treat trauma in Timor Leste. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research,10.

Schubert, S.J., Lee, C.W., & Drummond, P.D. (2011). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 1-11.

Schubert, S.J. & Lee, C.W., (2009). Adult PTSD and its treatment with EMDR: A review of controversies, evidence, and theoretical knowledgeJournal of EMDR Practice & Research, 3, 117-132.

Lee, C.W. & Schubert, S.J. (2008). Omissions and errors in the Institute of Medicine’s report on the scientific evidence of treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 32-38.

Dr Sarah Dominguez

Dominguez, S., Drummond, P., Gouldthorp, B., Janson, D., & Lee, C. W. (2020). A randomised controlled trial examining the impact of individual trauma‐focused therapy for individuals receiving group treatment for depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice.

Dominguez, S. K., & Lee, C. W. (2019). Differences in international guidelines regarding EMDR for posttraumatic stress disorder: Why they diverge and suggestions for future research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 247-260.

Dominguez, S. K., & Lee, C. W. (2017). Errors in the 2017 APA clinical practice guideline for the treatment of PTSD: What the data actually says. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 1425.