About Us

Associate Professor Christopher Lee

The majority of Psychology Training workshops are conducted by Dr Christopher Lee. Chris has conducted hundreds of workshops in Australia and overseas. In 1996 Chris Lee and Graham Taylor were the first therapists outside of the USA to get accredited training status by the EMDR International Association. Similarly Chris was the first Australian trainer accredited by the International Society of Schema Therapy. Chris brought the first international-based training in Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder to Australia in 1999. He currently is in private practice and has an adjunct position at UWA.


Psychology Training Workshops

Our workshops have small numbers and there is an emphasis on experiential learning, so that you actively participate in each of the sessions that we conduct.

Current Accreditations

Chris and Arnoud are accredited with the International Society of Schema Therapy as trainers and supervisors. Chris is accredited by the EMDR Association of Australia as a trainer.

Research Grants

In 2010 Chris was awarded a $110,000 Rotary Grant to investigate effective treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder.  This study is part of an international multi-centre randomised control trial (RCT).  This study currently has 480 participants and when published is likely to be the largest RCT of a psychotherapy intervention ever undertaken.

In 2016 Chris was award a $25,000 for an international RCT involving treatment of complex trauma (IREM Study).


Chris was awarded the EMDR International Association Award for Research Excellence in 1999 and 2015. In 2009 he received the inaugural European EMDRIA Francine Shapiro Award for research excellence. In 2006 he received and International Society for Traumatic Stress Study award for contribution to research into trauma.

In 2016 Chris was award a $25,000 for an international RCT involving treatment of complex trauma (IREM Study).

Research Publications

Below is a list of selected publications authored by Christopher Lee. His research publications are widely cited.  For example the 2002 EMDR outcome study  and the 1999 paper on Schema Therapy have each been cited over 300 times.  The 2006 paper showing EMDR is not exposure therapy has had over 150 citations while the meta-analysis published in 2013 by Chris and Pim Cuijpers on EMDR has already been cited over 280 times.

Dominguez, S., Drummond, P., Gouldthorp, B., Janson, D., & Lee, C. W. (2020). A randomized controlled trial examining the impact of individual trauma‐focused therapy for individuals receiving group treatment for depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. doi:10.1111/papt.12268

de Jongh, A., Amann, B. L., Hofmann, A., Farrell, D., & Lee, C. W. (2019). The status of EMDR therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder 30 years after its introduction. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 261-269.

de Jongh, A., Bicanic, I., Matthijssen, S., Amann, B. L., Hofmann, A., Farrell, D., . . . Maxfield, L. (2019). The current status of EMDR therapy involving the treatment of complex posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 284-290.

Dominguez, S., & Lee, C. W. (2019). Differences in International Guidelines Regarding EMDR for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Why They Diverge and Suggestions for Future Research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(4), 247-260. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.4.247

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Fassbinder, E., Hayes, C., & Lee, C. W. (2019). A schema therapy approach to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 29(1), 54-64. doi:10.1037/int0000120

Cooper, R. Z., Smith, A. D., Lewis, D., Lee, C. W., & Leeds, A. M. (2019). Developing the Interrater Reliability of the Modified EMDR Fidelity Checklist. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(1), 32-50. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.13.1.32

Lee, C. W., de Jongh, A., & Hase, M. (2019). Lateral Eye Movements, EMDR, and Memory Changes: A Critical Commentary on Houben et al. (2018) Clinical Psychological Science. doi:10.1177/2167702619830395

Lee, C. W., & Walton, C. J. (2019). Treating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with evidence-based psychological treatments In R. Benjamin, J. Haliburn, & S. King (Eds.), Humanising Mental Health Care in Australia: A Guide to Trauma-informed Approaches. (pp. 223-235): Routledge.

Lee, C. W., & Frost, A. D. (2019). Where Australia’s Better Access scheme has had an impact on mental health: A commentary on Jorm (2018). Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 000486741982849. doi:10.1177/0004867419828495 click here for full article

Tan, Y. M., Lee, C. W., Averbeck, L. E., Brand-de Wilde, O., Farrell, J., Fassbinder, E., . . . Arntz, A. (2018). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: A qualitative study of patients’ perceptions. PLoS ONE, 13(11), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0206039

Van Woudenberg, C., Voorendonk, E.M., Bongaerts, H., Zoet, H.A., Verhagen, M., Van Minnen, A., Lee, C.W., & De Jongh, A. (2018). The effectiveness of an intensive treatment program combining prolonged exposure and EMDR for severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). European Journal of Psychotraumatology. 9(1), https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2018.1487225

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Lee, C. W., Fassbinder, E., (In press) A Schema Therapy approach to the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration

Lee, C. W., Ree, M. J., & Wong, M. Y. (2018). Effective Insomnia Treatments: Investigation of Processes in Mindfulness and Cognitive Therapy. Behaviour Change, 1-20. doi:10.1017/bec.2018.10

Bastick, E., Bot, S., Verhagen, S. J. W., Zarbock, G., Farrell, J., Brand-de Wilde, O., . . . Lee, C. W. (2018). The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Group Schema Therapy Rating Scale – Revised. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1-18. doi:10.1017/S1352465817000741

Moir, V. K., Lee, C. W., & Marais, I. (2017). The Effects of Item Placement in the Young Schema Questionnaire Journal of Applied Measurement, 18(4), 370-382. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29252206

Cotter, P., Meysner, L., & Lee, C. W. (2017). Participant experiences of Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing vs. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for grief: similarities and differences. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(1), 1375838. doi:10.1080/20008198.2017.1375838

Dominguez, S. K., & Lee, C. W. (2017). Errors in the 2017 APA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of PTSD: What the Data Actually Says. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(1425). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01425

Boterhoven de Haan, K. L., Lee, C. W., Fassbinder, E., Voncken, M. J., Meewisse, M., Van Es, S. M., . . . Arntz, A. (2017). Imagery rescripting and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing for treatment of adults with childhood trauma-related post-traumatic stress disorder: IREM study design. BMC psychiatry, 17(1), 165. doi:10.1186/s12888-017-1330-2

Laugharne, J., Kullack, C., Lee, C. W., McGuire, T., Brockman, S., Drummond, P. D., & Starkstein, S. (2016). Amygdala volumetric change following psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 28 (4), 312-318. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16010006

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2016). Eye Movements Matter, But Why? Psychophysiological Correlates of EMDR Therapy to Treat Trauma in Timor-Leste. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(2), 70-81. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.10.2.70

Schubert, S., Lee, C. W., de Araujo, G., Butler, S., Taylor, G., Drummond, P. D. (2016) The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to treat symptoms following trauma in Timor Leste. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Apr;29(2):141-8. doi: 10.1002/jts.22084.

Jongh, A., Resick, P. A., Zoellner, L. A., Minnen, A., Lee, C. W., Monson, C. M., . . . Feeny, N. (2016). Critical Analysis of the Current Treatment Guidelines for Complex PTSD in Adults. Depression and anxiety. DOI: 10.1002/da.22469.

Meysner, L., Cotter, P., & Lee, C. W. (2016). Evaluating the Efficacy of EMDR With Grieving Individuals: A Randomized Control Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 10(1), 1-11. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3196.10.1.2.

Wong, M.Y., Lee, C.W., & Ree, M (2015). Enhancing CBT for chronic insomnia: A randomised control trial of additive components of Mindfulness or Cognitive Therapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy DOI: 10.1002/cpp.1980

Bach, B., Lee, C., Mortensen, E. L., & Simonsen, E. (2015). How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs? Journal of Personality Disorders, 29, 212. doi:10.1521/pedi_2015_29_212

Gilomen, S. A., & Lee, C. W. (2015). The efficacy of acupoint stimulation in the treatment of psychological distress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 48(0), 140-148. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.03.012

Wetzelaer, P., Farrell, J. Evers, S., Jacob, G., Lee, C.W., et al. (2014) Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 14:319. doi:10.1186/s12888-014-0319-3
Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2014). What does the data say about the importance of eye movement in EMDR? Journal of Behavioural Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 45, 226-228.

Boterhoven De Haan, Katrina L, & Lee, Christopher W. (2014). Therapists’ thoughts on therapy: Clinicians’ perceptions of the therapy processes that distinguish schema, cognitive behavioural and psychodynamic approaches. Psychotherapy Research, 25(5), 538-549.

Geddes, K., Dziurawiec, S., & Lee, C.W. (2013). Dialectical Behaviour Therapy for the Treatment of Emotion Dysregulation and Trauma Symptoms in Self-Injurious and Suicidal Adolescent Females: A Pilot Programme within a Community-Based Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. Psychiatry Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/145219

Lee, C.W., & Arntz, A. (2013). A Commentary on the Study on Dual-Focused vs. Single-Focused Therapy for Personality Disorders and Substance Dependence by Ball et al.(2011): What Can We Really Conclude? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(8), 712-713.

Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2013). A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories. Journal of Behavioural Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 44, 231-239.

Ho, M., & Lee, C.W. (2012). Cognitive behaviour therapy versus eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for post-traumatic disorder – is it all in the homework then? Revue Europeene de Psychologie Appliquee, 62(4), 253-260.

Roelofs, J., Lee, C., Ruijten, T., & Lobbestael, J. (2011). The mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the relation between quality of attachment relationships and symptoms of depression in adolescents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 39(4), 471-479.

Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., & Drummond, P. D. (2011). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(1), 1-11.

Cockram, D. M., Drummond, P. D., & Lee, C. W. (2010). Role and treatment of early maladaptive schemas in Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(3), 165-182.

Lee, C. W. (2008). Crucial Processes in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 262-268.

Lee, C. W., & Drummond P, D. (2008). Effects of Eye Movement vs Therapists Instructions on the Process of Distressing Memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(5), 801-808.

Lee, C. W., Taylor, G., & Drummond, P. (2006). The active ingredient in EMDR; is it traditional exposure or dual focus of attention? Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13, 97-107.

Lee, C., Gavriel, H., Drummond, P., Richards, J., & Greenwald, R. (2002). Treatment of PTSD: Stress Inoculation Training with Prolonged Exposure compared to EMDR. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1071-1089.

Lee, C. W., Taylor, G., & Dunn, J. (1999). Factor structure of the Schema Questionnaire in a large clinical Factor structure of the Schema Questionnaire in a large clinical sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23(4), 441-451.